Two members of this community, carpentry workers K.

However, despite the “struggle”, the number of Adventists increased until 1929, ie until the “most decisive action” of the government against the church. In 1924, official statistics numbered 11,500 Adventists in the USSR, in 1925 – 12,282, in 1928 – 1.3404. Moreover, we are talking only about members of communities. If we count two adult Adventists per family and determine the average family size of 5-6 people, we get a total of 40,000 people affected by Adventist communities. “In one of the sources we find data on Ukraine: here in 1928 there were 5073 members of the communities of ASD, most of whom were” shopkeepers, artisans, workers. “

In the early 1920s, the All-Union Association of ASDs was formed, headed by G. Lebsak, G. Tsirat, and B. Schmidt. It had 605 communities and by 1929 had held six conventions. In 1924 (at the Fifth All-Union Congress), a split took place among the SDA. Some believers, dissatisfied with the tactics of flirting with their leadership with the Soviet authorities and a positive solution to the issue of military service, announced the creation of a reformist movement. The Adventist-Reform Association, the Russian Seventh-day Adventist Field of the Reformation Movement, led by G. Ostwald, was formed in 1929 and immediately began operating as an underground religious organization. In 1936, the Russian Field was renamed the All-Russian Union of Adventist Reformists, whose leadership passed to V. Shelkov and P. Manzhura.

In 1925, the All-Ukrainian Association of ASD began its activities under the chairmanship of G. Lebsak, I. Lviv, and O. Nedoby. In addition to solving general religious and organizational problems, his goal was to establish the ASD Bible Institute in Kyiv, short-term Bible courses in various cities of Ukraine, publishing Adventist literature, distributing Ukrainian Bibles and collections of spiritual songs in Ukrainian. However, the members of the association did not have time to realize their plans.

The SDA Church in Ukraine adhered to the basic principles of the general Adventist doctrine, which it published in the pages of Blagovestnyk magazine, an organ of the All-Ukrainian Union. In addition to the classical Protestant (faith in God the Creator, Christ the Savior, in the attainment of grace through the action of the Holy Spirit, in the Bible – the only source of life and teaching, in the Ten Commandments, in water baptism through immersion) the credo of ASD contains special elements. This is the confession of the Sabbath; the expectation of a second coming that “will be personal, visible and real.

However, we do not determine the time of this event “; the introduction of tithing, which supports the cause of the Gospel;” As followers of Christ, we do not imitate the world in the pursuit of fashion, worldly entertainment … our goal is to proclaim to the present generation and to the whole world the Eternal Gospel or the good news of salvation “;” We are against any alcoholic beverages, Chinese tea, coffee, etc. In addition, we avoid unclean food “;” The prophets reveal God’s worldly plans and show us where we are in world history. “

Adventists of Ukraine and the general Protestant cult were followed. The rite of baptism in the SDA communities is no different from the Baptist rite, as is the Eucharistic rite, in which Adventists also resort to foot washing. The Sabbath in their communities is often used for special worship services – so-called Sabbath conversations, during which they introduce their teachings not only to believers but also to non-believers.

Adventism was also widespread in Western Ukraine. The first community of ASD arose in 1890 near Lutsk. Its members were German settlers, and the leader was K. Raven, an emigrant from the Tavriya province, who visited America and returned as a follower of the idea of ​​the rapid coming of Christ. Two members of this community, carpenters K. Fendel and J. Sledzinski, came to Łód 18 in 1896, where they founded a new center.

Later, a group of German colonists from southern and central Ukraine moved there, forming an Adventist center in Poland. At the beginning of the XX century. a biblical school and mission for Western Ukraine opened. The center was headed by a former resident of Odessa D. Heide and an Adventist from Zhytomyr F. Remferd. In 1906, a community was organized in Warsaw, led by G. Schmitz, which also played a major role in the spread of Adventism in Western Ukraine. In the first decade of XX century. Many foreign missionaries came to the region, mostly from Switzerland, Germany, and North America.

Thanks to the efforts of missionary J. Peter, an Adventist community was formed in Bielsk in 1901, led by Pavel Nedoba. The name of the latter is associated with the emergence of communities in Galicia. In 1922, Adventists joined the ASD Union in Poland, which was part of the Eastern European Division. The union was divided into eight fields. Among them – Slanske with a seat in Lutsk, East – in Grodno, South – in Lviv. In the Ukrainian ethnic lands, the main places of distribution of ASD communities were the districts of Podlasie (three settlements), Brest (one), Dubensky (four), Lviv (one), Lutsk (eight), Pinsk (four), Peremyshl (one), and Sarny (one), Sokal (one), Slonim (three). In 1926, a Bible school was opened in Bielsko, which trained preachers for the eastern part of Poland.

In Warsaw and Łóddzі, the Union opened its publishing houses, which, in addition to general biblical and religious literature (primarily the numerous works of Helen White; they, like the Bible, are considered a necessary source of divine truth), published the magazines Servant of the Congregation. time “,” Light for enlightenment “in German, Polish and Russian. In Lviv, at the expense of the Union, the Ukrainian-language magazine Znaki Vremya was published (published in 1927-1933, edited by A. Mashchak). Literature from foreign Adventist centers was also distributed in Ukrainian, such as the Yearbook of Missions Meetings, published in Canada in the 1920s and 1930s. An important role in the distribution of Adventist literature among the Slavic, including Ukrainian, population was played by the communities that operated during this period in Transcarpathian Ukraine, where in Tyachiv and Rakhiv counties had a branched center of ASD.

There were also many communities in Western Ukraine that did not join the Seventh-day Adventist Union in Poland. Such centers existed in Drohobych, Boryslav, Stanislav, Kolomyia, Gorokhov, Kovel, Volodymyr-Volynsky, and Rivne. The teachings of Adventist-Reformists were also widespread in Bukovyna, Stanislavshchyna, and Lvivshchyna. In Sept. 1935, a Seventh-day Adventist sect of Christians was formed. She did not recognize prophets and prophetesses, she considered only the New Testament to be a sacred book.

It is very difficult to determine the total number of Adventists in Western Ukraine. Although most supporters of the current were in Galicia, on Bukwine and Transcarpathia, preserved information only about those churches ASD, which operated in Volhynia. Here, according to Orthodox statistics, in 1932 there were 1103 Adventists.

Pentecost (from the Old Testament feast of Pentecost; in the New Testament, the Green Feast, or Trinity), like Adventism, originated on the basis of Baptism, following the ascending religious and cultic principles of late Protestantism. Already in the first third of XX century. this trend was ahead of Adventism in the number of adherents and came close to Baptism. Today, Pentecost is one of the largest Protestant churches in the world.

Formally, its appearance dates back to 1903, when members of a community in Los Angeles, according to them, descended the Holy Spirit and they spoke in incomprehensible languages. However, the Pentecostal doctrine was formed at https://123helpme.me/animal-farm/ the end of the XIX century. of many other Protestant ideas, mostly Baptism and Methodism. In their midst during this period there was a movement of holiness, whose adherents, not content with the usual interpretation of salvation, insisted on its new understanding and additional argumentation. From the movement of holiness came such a Protestant movement as perfectionism (from the English – perfection). Its adherents supplemented the soteriological doctrine with the idea of ​​spiritual enlightenment or birth from the Holy Spirit, which, in their opinion, will allow a person to be finally freed from original sin and to acquire spiritual perfection, even holiness. Pentecostalism also emerged from the holiness movement, enriching perfectionism with the dogma of the baptism of the Holy Spirit as the ultimate argument in the doctrine of salvation.

The dogma is related to the New Testament biblical story of the descent of the Holy Spirit on the apostles of Christ on the day of the ancient Jewish holiday of Pentecost. Most Christians perceive this story as a historical event that happened only once and only with the apostles and the first followers of Christ. Pentecost actualizes it by announcing the possibility of the baptism of the Holy Spirit today, in real, earthly life. Hence – a new understanding of the dogma: according to the supporters of the current, spiritual baptism, and through it contact with the Almighty, can be obtained by anyone, regardless of their social status, religious affiliation, individual abilities. Such democratization of dogma, its “grounding” and personal fullness have made the idea of ​​the baptism of the Holy Spirit extremely attractive to many believers.

Pentecost sees salvation as a gradual process. First, the believer goes through the stage of water baptism, which symbolizes the entry into his heart of Jesus Christ. Then man is born again, that is, he personally knows the Holy Spirit and attains holiness; finally, she receives the baptism of the Holy Spirit, therefore, she is spiritually purified and joins God’s elect, which ultimately guarantees her eternal life. Through the baptism of the Holy Spirit, the believer acquires strength both for earthly, everyday life, and for religious service, communion with the Most High. This power is transmitted to him through the fruits and gifts of the Holy Spirit, the charisms we read about in the Bible.

It points, first of all, to the fruits of the Spirit which form the personality of the Christian. These are sanctification, holiness, purity, perfect love, pure heart, which act as peculiar symbols of the ethical perfection of a person, a guarantee of salvation. By receiving the baptism of the Spirit, Pentecost attains these fruits and thus becomes like Jesus Christ, becomes pure (in the spiritual sense), holy. There are nine gifts of the Holy Spirit in the Bible. “For to one is given by the Spirit the word of wisdom; to another the word of knowledge by the same Spirit; to another faith by the same Spirit; to another the gifts of healing by the same Spirit; to another the working of miracles; to another prophecy; and to another the discernment of spirits; to another the interpretation of tongues ”(1 Cor. 12: 8-10).

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